The topic extra ecclesiam nulla salus is discussed in the following articles:
- ...three main points of view. According to exclusivism, there is salvation only for Christians. This theology underlay much of the history outlined above, expressed both in the Roman Catholic dogma extra ecclesiam nulla salus (“outside the church no salvation”) and in the assumption of the 18th- and 19th-century Protestant missionary movements. The exclusivist outlook was eroded...
The dogma was defined by three Church Councils. It says all need to convert into the Catholic Church for salvation and that non Catholics and non Christians are oriented to Hell unless they are formal members of the Catholic Church i.e unless they have Catholic Faith.
The dogma on exclusive salvation in the Catholic Church was questioned in the Fr.Leonard Feeney case when the Archbishop of Boston Cardinal Richard Cushing and the Holy Office 1949 inferred that the baptism of desire and being saved in invincible ignorance were explicit exceptions to all needing to convert.
It is now being recognized in the Catholic Church that this was a factual error. Since we do not know any one, for example in 2014, who is saved with the baptism of desire etc. So how can cases which do not exist in our reality be exceptions to all needing faith and baptism for salvation.
This error is now known in the Catholic Church under the name Cushingism. It refers to something which is irrational, non traditional and heretical.
Cushingism is the common interpretation of Vatican Council II in which it is inferred that Lumen Gentium 16 ( those saved in invincible ignorance) are explicit exeptions to the dogma extra ecclesiam nulla salus. The error is assuming that these deceased are visible on earth and then concluding that they are exceptions.
Without Cushingism, Vatican Council II is in agreement with the traditional interpretation of the dogma extra ecclesiam nulla salus.-Lionel Andrades